Coffee and Espresso Glossary – L
LAST IMPRESSION – An expression that describes the concept of coffee as the final item of a gourmet meal, and thus providing the final image in the consumer’s mind regarding the overall quality and presentation of the meal.
LATTE MACCHIATO – See Espresso Drink Recipes.
LATIN AMERICA BOURBON COFFEE (Latin American Bourbon Coffee) – Bourbon is a coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. bourbon) that has a yield that is less than many other coffee plant varietals yet it is still about 25% greater than the yield of the Typica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. typica).
Like Typica, Bourbon is known to produce an excellent brewed coffee with a smooth, mild flavor that is often sweet and nutty. The body is typically light to medium with a low acidity and very pleasant aroma.
The first Coffea arabica varietals known are thought to have been Arabica (Coffea arabica var. arabica) and Bourbon (Coffea Arabica var. bourbon). Virtually all other coffee plant varietals are thought to have originated from these two varietals, including the popular Arabica variety called Typica (Coffea arabica var. typica) derived from Coffea arabica var. arabica.
Bourbon coffee plants have more secondary branches than Typica, and grow in a shape that is less conical. Branches grow closer together off the main coffee plant stem and at less of an angle than Typica branches. Bourbon coffee plants grow best at elevations between 3,500 feet and 6,500 feet above sea level.
The coffee cherry ripen quite quickly and also fall off the plant fairly easily, making these plants vulnerable to wind and weather.
The Bourbon varietal originated after the French first planted the parent stock in 1708 in Bourbon (now Reunion Island) in the middle of the Indian Ocean. The coffee plant then underwent a slight mutation resulting in the Bourbon varietal.
LATIN AMERICA CATUAI COFFEE (Latin American Catuai Coffee) – A high yielding Arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. catuai) that is a cross between the two varietals: Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica hybrid mundo novo) and Caturra (Coffea arabica var. caturra). Catuai was developed in the late 1940s in Brazil.
The Catuai coffee plant is relatively short, producing lateral branches that form tight angles with the main branches. Catuai plants require a fair amount of care and fertilization.
LATIN AMERICA CATURRA COFFEE (Latin American Caturra Coffee) – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. caturra) that is a mutation of the Bourbon varietal (Coffea arabica var. bourbon). Caturra was discovered in Brazil in the 1930s near the town of Caturra and later planted in Latin America.
Caturras are fast-maturing coffee trees with good production, and better at resisting coffee diseases than other Arabica coffee plant varietals, though the Caturra plants do require a relatively high amount of care and fertilization.
However, the quality of the cup of brewed coffee produced by Caturra (as well as other modern hybrids of Coffea arabica) is generally considered to be inferior to more traditional varieties of Coffea arabica including the old Arabica varietal s Typica (Coffea arabica var. typica) and Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon).
Caturra plants have a relatively thick main stem with an abundance of secondary branches. Like Bourbon, Caturra leaves are rather large and have wavy edges.
Caturra plants are known to grow well in a variety of conditions though they are best suited to elevations ranging from 1,500 to 5,500 feet above sea level and rainfall amounts that average around 3,000 mm per year. The higher the elevation, the lower the production of Caturra plants, though the coffee bean quality increases.
Caturra plants produce a higher yield than Bourbon plants, largely because there is less distance between the branches. Genetically, Caturra is quite similar to the Bourbon varietal, yet the quality and distinction of the brewed coffee is generally considered to be lower than Bourbon.
The Caturra mutation also led to El Salvador’s Pacas varietal (Coffea arabica var. pacas) from Coffea arabica var. bourbon and Costa Rica’s Villa Sarchi varietal (Coffea arabica var. villa sarchi) from Coffea arabica var. bourbon.
LATIN AMERICA MARIGOJIPE COFFEE (Latin American Marigojipe; Latin America Marigogipe Coffee; Latin American Marigojipe) – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. marigojipe) that is commonly called Marigojipe coffee. The varietal Marigojipe is a mutation of the Typica varietal and known to produce large coffee beans.
Discovered in Brazil in the 1940s, Mundo Novo is a hybrid of the Bourbon (Coffea arabica var. bourbon) and Typica (Coffea arabica var. typica) varietals. Mundo Novo is now grown throughout Latin America.
The varietal Catuai (Coffea arabica var. catuai) is a cross between Mundo Novo and Caturra (Coffea arabica var. caturra).
LATIN AMERICA PACAMARA COFFEE (Latin American Pacamara Coffee) – Pacamara is a hybrid between Maragojipe (Coffea arabica var. maragojipe) and Pacas (a Typica mutation – Coffea arabica var. pacas). First bred in 1958 in El Salvador, Pacamara was likely developed to create a Typica variety with larger coffee beans.
LATIN AMERICA PACAS COFFEE (Latin American Pacas Coffee) – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. pacas) that is a natural mutation of Coffea arabica var. bourbon. Pacas was discovered in 1949 in El Salvador in 1949. Also see Caturra Coffee.
LATIN AMERICA PACHE COLIS COFFEE (Latin American Pache Colis Coffee) – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica hybrid pache colis) that is distinguished by its large fruits (cherry)) rough-textured leaves, and secondary as well as tertiary branching.
Pache colis grows best at temperatures around 20 degrees Celsius at elevations between 3,000 and 6,000 feet above sea level, and usually reaches heights between .8 and 1.25 meters.
Pache colis was first discovered on a farm in Mataquescuintla, Guatemala where Pache comum and Caturra coffee plants were growing, and thus is an Arabica hybrid between those two varietals. Pache colis also has the desirable quality of being somewhat resistant to phoma, a genus of soil fungi.
LATIN AMERICA PACHE COMUM COFFEE (Latin American Pache Comum Coffee) – A Coffea arabica coffee plant varietal (Coffea arabica var. pache comum) that is a mutation of the Typica varietal (Coffea arabica var. typica) and produces a brewed coffee known to be smooth and perhaps somewhat flat.
LATTE – See Espresso Drink Recipes.
LAVAZZA (Lavazza Espresso) – See Coffee Companies.
LEKEMPTI COFFEE – See Ethiopian Lekempti Coffee.
LEVER ESPRESSO MACHINE (Lever Machine; Lever-Style Espresso Machine; Lever Style Espresso Machine; Lever Style Machine) – A type of manual espresso machine (espresso coffee maker) that employs a lever and piston (rather than a pump) to push a piston down to create pressure used to force water through a tamped (compacted) bed of roasted and finely ground coffee to brew one or more shots of espresso.
LIBERICA COFFEE – See Liberica Coffee.
LIGHT – Describes a coffee with a mild character and a delicate acidity, fragrance, and aroma. Also describes a coffee with a relatively low (e.g., barely perceptible) level of solid materials (insoluble proteins and fine particles of coffee bean fiber) suspended in the brewed coffee beverage.
LIGHT ESPRESSO ROAST – This light, dark roast is darker than an American Roast though lighter than espresso level roasts such as Espresso Roast, French Roast, or Italian Roast. A Light Espresso Roast is a Medium-Dark Roast that denotes a stop temperature of about 440 to 445 degrees Fahrenheit.
A Light Espresso Roast is also called a Full-City Roast, Light French Roast, or Viennese Roast. Though a Light Espresso Roast will be less acidic than an American Roast the darker roast may also mask some of the coffee’s original flavors.
The Light Espresso Roast is one of the most common roasts for specialty coffees. Also called North Italian Roast, particularly when it is used in espresso blends. Also see Medium-Dark Roast; Roasting Coffee.
LIGHT FRENCH ROAST – This light, dark roast is darker than an American Roast though lighter than espresso level roasts such as Espresso Roast, French Roast, or Italian Roast. A Light French Roast is a Medium-Dark Roast that denotes a stop temperature of about 440 to 445 degrees Fahrenheit.
A Light French Roast is also called a Full-City Roast, Viennese Roast, or Light Espresso Roast. Though a Light French Roast will be less acidic than an American Roast the darker roast may also mask some of the coffee’s original flavors.
The Light French Roast is one of the most common roasts for specialty coffees. Also called North Italian Roast, particularly when it is used in espresso blends. Also see Medium-Dark Roast; Roasting Coffee.
LIGHT ROAST – See Light Roast.
LIMU COFFEE – See Ethiopian Limu Coffee.
LINTONG COFFEE – See Sumatra Lintong Coffee.
LIQUID CONCENTRATE – A coffee extract which is a type of instant coffee made by a process similar to how soluble coffee is made, but instead of producing powder or granules, a concentrated liquid is produced.
This liquid is then stored in a refrigerator or aseptic packaging until it is reconstituted by adding hot water.
LLOYD’S OF LONDON – Renowned insurance company founded by Edward Lloyd who owned a coffeehouse in London, England 1688.
Among the patrons of Lloyd’s coffeehouse were many ships’ captains, maritime agents, and merchants, so Lloyd began maintaining a list of arriving vessels and their cargo.
Eventually Lloyd began to underwrite the shipments which led him to eventually found what would become the famous Lloyds of London insurance company.
LONGBERRY HARRAR COFFEE (Longberry Harar Coffee; Longberry Harer Coffee; Longberry Coffee) – See Ethiopian Harrar Longberry Coffee.
LONG SHOT – See Espresso Drink Recipes.
Low Mountain coffee is grown below 1,500 feet while Jamaica High Mountain coffee is grown between 1,500 and 3,000 feet and the renowned Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee estates are located at elevations between 3,000 feet (914 meters) and and 5,500 feet (1,676 meters).
LUCIDCAFE ONLINE MAGAZINE – See Coffee Websites.
LUWAK – See Kopi Luwak.